# Causal Inference for Brain Imaging Data

The SMART group has pioneered the use of causal inference techniques in medical image analysis. This article is an early attempt at population mediation analyses in a large volumetric imaging study. Martin Lindquist has developed several parallel efforts connecting causal analyses and fmri including the study of mediation, structural equation models and causal inference (see his web site for further information). Haley Hedlin extended Rosenbaum's causal permutation methods to fMRI here.